Introduction and Conclusion can cause the biggest problems for your research paper at college or university. You will be surprised, but the research part is not the most difficult one for a lot of students. The biggest problems they face when writing an Introduction and Conclusion. They don't know what can be included and what can't be included in these parts, while keeping a healthy balance between an introduction, body, and conclusion in terms of word count.

Today, we're going to talk about writing the first and the last parts of your research paper particularly. You're going to know the approximate percentage these parts take in your paper, and the information to be obligatory mentioned in both of them. You can always google additional guidelines online, just make sure that your Source is reliable. 

How to Write an Introduction and a Conclusion

An introduction is needed to prepare the readers for the research which you're going to conduct. Usually, experienced scientists write an introductory part at the end of the whole writing process. This helps them to ensure that everything mentioned in this part was fulfilled in practice in their research. But as a student, you can prepare your introduction at the very beginning, if it is easier for you. An introduction should engage the readers to keep reading and to make them interested in your research. It also includes a thesis or a hypothesis, which is the main point of your research, described in one sentences only. An introduction should express and explain the importance of the work done. It definitely shouldn't be longer than a body part with a research described, in general, it should not be longer than 10-15% of total word count. 
Your introduction has to be:

And accurate.

Start with a broader view on the topic you're discussing, narrowing it down to the end of the introduction. Don't include information, which is not fully related to your research topic. Be specific. Analyze whether your introduction includes: a hook, a background info, importance, and assumptions about the topic. You can end the introduction with a research question or a thesis statement, pointing out the main goal or idea of the further research. After reading this part, the reader should clearly understand the topic and the reasons for the research paper. If you can't compose a meaningful introduction at the very beginning of the writing process, don't force yourself. Skip to  the Main Body part and come back to the introduction when the research will be completed.

A conclusion is very similar to the Introduction, but the requirements for it are simpler. At the same time, it is the most important part of your paper as it summarizes the results of the research. The main goal of the conclusion is to summarize the research described in the body part, pointing out whether the goal made in the introductory part was achieved or not. The conclusion is the part which analyzes the results even if they are not the same as you've predicted before the research. Answer the questions about what you've done. What you've achieved, what you haven't achieved in your research, and why.

You can analyze the research from the point of view of what you would like to do in the future to improve the result you've achieved. What could be done better? What have you missed in your research? Answer all of these questions to leave your readers without additional questions after reading your paper. At the same time, don't write too much. Keep it simple and short. The conclusion shouldn't be longer than the introduction. In other words, be very critical and objective about what you've done and what you've achieved in the research paper. Your conclusion should be based on the whole research paper.

That's all for introductions and conclusions. All you have to remember is that these two parts will define for the readers whether you understand the topic you have to research or not. Keep them simple and concise. In other words, give a brief review of the work to do and the work, which has been done accordingly.