Lipase is a multipurpose enzyme and is used in various industrial processes. The enzyme is derived from several sources, including microbiological, vegetables, and animals.
Animal lipases are derived from kid lamb and calf, while microbial lipases are obtained through fermentation, mostly with the fungal species known as Rhizomucor meihei.
The action pattern of microbial lipases and animal lipases differs. Both are used in the industry depending on the expected flavor. The microbiological lipase enzymes are proficient and have various industrial uses.
Let's look at industrial use of lipase in their manufacturing process.
Lipase In Wastewater Treatment
Industries widely use anaerobic and aerobic approaches of lipases to treat wastewater. Effluent water such as dairy waste, food waste, grease from wool, and wastewater from oil mills using anaerobic processes
Too many lipids in wastewater can cause grave environmental issues like blockage of sewer lines and forming an oily layer on the water's surface.
These high concentrations of grease and oil affect wastewater treatment since it lowers the oxygen transfer rate in the aerobic process. This makes the removal of fat and oil from industrialized wastewater important.
However, currently, the most commonly used techniques are insufficient and expensive, and chemical processes pollute the environment. Contrary, wastewater treatment plants can use fermentation to create extracellular microbial lipases reasonably cheaply and in large amounts for industrial use.
Biological approaches that use lipase enzymes have represented a "green" option for removing grease and oil from wastewater. This study is characterized by a new lipase formed from bacteria secluded by olive pomace samples and screening soil for lipolytic activity.
Treatment of fats in wastewater using enzymatic methods, primarily triglycerides, may be hydrolyzed up to 90 percent filth. In addition, industries can improve it further by using immobilized lipase-producing bacteria.
Lipase In the Diagnosis of Pancreatitis in Veterinary Medicine
Pancreatitis is most common in humans, cats, and dogs. For human and veterinary healthcare professionals, the amount of serum pancreatic lipase activity or concentration provides valuable support in diagnosing pancreatitis.
The correct amount of pancreatic lipase concentration or activity is vital for diagnosing pancreatitis in cats and dogs. Catalytic colorimetric and immunological lipase tests are the most commonly used lipase in veterinary medicine.
In addition, due to the high specificity levels in lipase, the enzyme can be used to manufacture pharmaceutical compounds. For instance, industries use enantioselective enzymes as a substitute technology for chromatography.
Lipase In Animal Feed Manufacturer
Lipase has a significant role in lipid metabolism since it is an essential enzyme during the digestion and absorption of fat. Lipase hydrolyzes fat into fatty acid, glycerin as well as monoglyceride for animal use.
A monogastric animal is capable of producing lipase itself. However, a young animal’s digestive function is incomplete, making digestive enzyme production insufficient. Therefore, fat absorption is low. For that reason, livestock feed industries should add lipase to feedstuff.
The importance of adding lipase to animal feed includes:
•Supplementing the shortage of endogenous digestive enzymes,
•Enhancing the absorption and utilization of fat
•Lowering the rate of intestinal diseases in animals
•Promoting absorption of fat-soluble vitamins,
•Improves animal skin and hair, making it more lustrous
•Lowering the cost of feed
Therefore, digestion and absorption of fat in animal feed do not improve the efficiency of fat nutrients only. It furthermore enhances the holistic effectiveness of the feed.
Lipase helps to improve the rate of fat absorption and utilization during the development of piglets, ducks, chicken, and fish. It also supports energy utilization of feed efficiently during the development of animals if it is added to the feed properly.
In addition, it supplements essential nutrient substances like fat acid, pigment, and fat-soluble vitamins in animals.
Other Industrial Uses of Lipase
Lipase also has many other industrial uses as mentioned below.
Use Of Lipase in The Dairy and Baking Industry
Industries extensively use lipase to hydrolyze milk fat, change the lengths of the fatty acid chain, and improve the cheese flavor in the dairy industry. It also speeds up cheese ripening and lipolysis of cream, fat, and butter. The dairy industries use both microbial and animal lipases in their products.
In baking, lipase substitutes conventional emulsifiers by degradation of wheat lipids to create emulsifying lipids in situ. In addition, the enzyme improves bakery products' taste, texture, and softness and increases the loaf volume.
Lipase also promotes crumb firmness, allowing an extended shelf-life of baked products.
Lipase In Egg Processing
Eggs are valuable ingredients in the food industry with various properties such as gelatin, foaming, emulsifying in mayonnaise and batter, and enhanced texture of baked products. The emulsifying properties are found in egg lipids.
Therefore, lipases can significantly improve the emulsifying power of egg lipids for healthier performance and lower the addition rate of egg yolk in processed food recipes.
Lipase In the Meat and Fish Industry
Lipase is also used in the fish and meat industry to remove fat and produce lean meat. For example, when processing fish meat, you remove fat by adding lipases. The procedure is known as bio-lipolysis.
In addition, lipase plays an essential role in the sausage manufacturing fermentative process. It determines the long-chain fatty acid changes released during ripening.
Earlier, industries used different types of lipase from microbial sources to modify soybean milk, refine rice flavor, improve the smell, and speed up apple wine fermentation.
Due to its versatile biological catalyst, lipase has met the needs of various industries like foods and drinks, biodiesel, detergents, leather, pharmaceuticals, textiles, and cosmetics. The enzyme is an essential industrial biocatalyst, predicted to have amazing uses in manufacturing various products.
The unique properties of lipase, such as substrate specificity, improved stability, and selectivity, make it the most widely used industrial enzyme. In addition, research on the production and uses of lipase is still growing with new products and function developments.
Limits to the industrial use of lipase have primarily been due to its high cost of production. However, this might be overtaken by molecular technologies that enable lipase production at high levels and in an almost purified form.
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